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We were acquainted with one of the infectious viral diseases in childhood and school age together in the previous article.
And we have talked that we will continue talking about this topic on several articles,
Today, dear visitor, we will get to know you about diphtheria (diphtheria),
This disease is a viral disease of school age, and we will talk about it in detail.
Diphtheria (diphtheria) There are two things to call it that name,
First, there are local infections at the place where the germs enter,
As for the second matter,
the occurrence of more severe blood poisoning resulting from the release of toxins from diphtheria bacilli into the blood,
There are three types of it: severe, medium, and light.
The disease is more severe in the first and second types than in the third, the incidence rate.
Since the beginning of the expansion of the routine vaccination of children, diphtheria has disappeared.
From many countries of the world,
It has been shown that stopping vaccination for a few years results in an epidemic recurrence of the disease.
This disease often appears in the winter season.
And infection with this disease is at school age, and adults who are not vaccinated,
The infected person or the carrier of the virus is the reservoir of infection.
Transmission of infection: The methods of transmission of infection here are through contact with a spray of infection,
Or by using tools contaminated with the source of infection,
Or by consuming hot liquids contaminated by the infected or carriers of the germ,
And the infection enters here through the upper part of the respiratory system or the skin,
And the incubation period for infection ranges from 2 to 5 days.
Symptoms of the disease
Local symptoms: They often occur in the respiratory system, especially the tonsils.
Sore throat, larynx, nose,
And sometimes it occurs in the skin or in the mucous membranes lining the rest of the body’s systems,
The local incidence of the disease is the appearance of a patch of gray adherent membrane surrounded by inflammation,
The disease germ lies on either side or below.
Symptoms of blood poisoning: The symptoms of blood poisoning are a moderate fever .
Low mood, exhaustion, and body aches,
The complications of the disease include the nervous and circulatory systems and are represented by a decrease in blood circulation,
And myocarditis, nerve paralysis, and fluid reflux from the nose,
As for motor nerve paralysis, it usually occurs in the lower extremities.
As for palsy of the heart muscle and diaphragm, it is often dangerous, but it is rare.
The mortality rate in people with ranges between 5-10%,
The period of infection extends from the period of infection to convalescence,
Usually this period is less than two weeks,
but it extends to four weeks,
Once the patient has taken the appropriate antibiotics,
the patient will stop excreting the pathogen.
For compulsory vaccination,
infants should be given three doses of the triple vaccine upon reaching the age of 2, 4 and 6 months.
They should be given booster doses at the age of 18, 24 months and also at school age.
This dose of the BOT vaccine contains diphtheria toxins (diphtheria).
And tetanus only, as for adults, vaccination is limited to those most susceptible to the disease,
By injecting them with booster doses every ten years.
In the end, when suspected disease,
the patient must be isolated at home or in the hospital,
taking into account the continuation of isolation until it is proven that the disease is not present,
disinfect all equipment contaminated with the patient’s secretions.
Children who have been in contact with previously vaccinated shall be given a booster dose.
Carriers of the germ,
limiting the movement of the patient and resting in bed to reduce the movement of toxins in the blood,
when the epidemic is proven,
all those who are susceptible to infection,
especially young children,
must be vaccinated.